Hindi Alphabets, Vowels & Consonants

Before you start learning Hindi, let us start off with the basics. Hindi is written in Devanagari script. The first step of any language is to learn its alphabets, similar to other languages, Hindi has its own alphabets known as Hindi Varnamala. In Hindi, there is 13 स्वरों (vowels) and 36 व्यंजन(consonants). Learning Hindi requires patience and practice. Experts suggest to begin with learning five letters on a daily basis and increase it as your progress. Approximately a week or ten days would be needed to master Hindi scripts.

Hindi Alphabets

Hindi alphabets is also known as Devanagari. In Hindi, there are 48 alphabets. These alphabets can be divided into two parts:

Hindi vowels (Hindi Swaron)

Hindi consonants (Hindi Vyannjana)

Hindi vowels (Hindi Swaron)

Hindi Vowels has 13 alphabets such as:

अ (a)

आ (aa)

इ (i)

ई (ii)

उ (u)

ऊ (uu)


ए (i)

ऐ (ii)

ओ (o)

औ (au)

अं (am)

अः (ah)

How to pronounce all vowels, let us relate that alphabets with English words for better practice.

अ – American, Affection, Anil, Anemia.

आ – Africa, Aaj tak, Arm, Argon.

इ – Image, India, Eagle, Easy.

ई – English, Idli, Email.

उ – pUll, pUt, ooty.

ऊ – rOOm, cOOl, Oops

ऋ – Remote, Real.

ए – April, grEAt, brEAd.

ऐ – drAIn, AIshwarya, AId.

ओ – hOme, cOmb, chrOme, Obama

औ – Owl, AUrangabad, Aurangzeb

अं – Uncle, Umbrella, Under.

अः – Aha

Hindi Consonants (Hindi Vyannjana)

Hindi consonants (व्यंजन) has 36 alphabets such as:

क (ka)

ख (Kha)

ग (Ga)

घ (Gha)

ङ (nga)

च (cha)

छ (chha)

ज (ja)

झ (jha)

ञ (nja)

ट (Ta)

ठ (Tha)

ड (Da)

ढ (Dha)

ण (Na)

त (ta)

थ (tha)

द (da)

ध (dha)

न (na)

प (pa)

फ (pha)

ब (ba)

भ (bha)

म (ma)

य (ya)

र (ra)

ल (la)

व (wa)

श (sha)

ष (shha)

स (sa)

ह (ha)

क्ष (ksh)

त्र (tra)

ज्ञ (gya)

How to pronounce all consonents.

Let us relate with English words to pronounce better way:

क – Curtain, banK, Kabir.

ख – Khan, laKH.

ग – juG, muG, Gum,

घ – Ghost, Ghee, Gharry.

ङ – Sound of Xn rarely used.

च – CHunk, eaCH, Champak.

छ – Chatigardh, Chatrapati.

ज – Justin, caGE, Junk.

झ – bronZE, breeZE, haZE.

ञ – Sound of gn rarely used.

ट – caT, maT, Truck.

ठ – THanda (cold).

ड – maD, baD, Done.

ढ – Dhaka, Dholak.

ण – no English equivalent.

त – Tamilnadu, Tehran.

थ – THermal, baTH.

द – THE, bagDAD,

ध – DHarma,joDHpur.

न – maN, Name, caNe.

प – maP, caP, Plum.

फ – iF, Fur, Fun.

ब – moB, BulB, Bus.

भ – aBHor, BHakshi.

म – Mud, Margin, Merge.

य – mY, Yes, Ya.

र – Run, Rush, Ram.

ल – baLL, Luck, Lamp.

व – Work, Warm, Wall.

श – SHirt, Shut, Shame.

ष – SHirt, Shut, Shame

स – Sohan, Son, Sun.

ह – Hug, Heard, Hard.

क्ष – akSHay.

त्र – TRishul

ज्ञ – no English word for gyn

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