Parts of Speech (शब्द के भेद)


Just like English, which has its own basic types of words known as part of speech, Hindi on the other hand has them too. Let us learn them one by one.

Shabdo ke prakar (Parts of speech):
Parts of speech in Hindi are similar to the ones which we have in English. There are eight parts of speech namely:

1)    Sangya (Noun)
2)    Sarvanam (Pronoun)
3)    Vesheshan (Adjectives)
4)    Kriya (Verb)
5)    Kriya Vesheshan (Adverb)
6)    Sambandhbodhak (Preposition)
7)    Sammuchyabodhak (Conjuction)
8)    Vismayadibodhak (Interjection)

1) Sangya (संज्ञा, Noun):
 The name of person, place or thing is called as Noun, Nouns are also known as sangya (संज्ञा) in Hindi.

(किसी भी व्यक्ति, स्थान, वस्तु आादि के नाम को संज्ञा कहते है। जैसे कमला, रोहन, मुंबई)

For Example:
● Kamla (कमला) (किसी खास लङकी का नाम।)
● Rohan (रोहन) (किसी खास लङका का नाम।)
● Mumbai (मुंबई) (किसी खास महानगर का नाम।)

The following sentences contain examples of sangya (nouns):

● Kamla padayi kr rhi hai (कमला पढाई कर रही है।) Kamla is doing study.
● Rohan bhut natkhat hai. (रोहन बहुत नटखट है।) Rohan is very naughty.
● Mumbai bhut sundar mahanagar hai. (मुंबई बहुत सुंदर महानगर है।)

2) Sarvanam (सर्वनाम, Pronoun):
Pronoun are words used in place of nouns. In Hindi, pronouns are called as sarvanam.

(संज्ञा के बदले आए हुए शब्द को उसे सर्वनाम कहते है। जैसे - वह, वो, हम, तुम, मै, तुम्हारा आदि।)

For Example:
 ● vah (वह) – he or she
 ● Voh (वो) – they
 ● Hum (हम) -  We
 ● Tum (तुम)  - You
 ● Main (मै)  - I
 ● Tumhara (तुम्हारा) – Your

The following sentences contain examples of sarvanam (pronouns):

Humlog aaj ghumne jar he hai (हमलोग आज घूमने जा रहे है।) We have been going around today.

Mai bazaar jar hi hu.( मै बाजार जा रही हूं।) I am going to market.

3) Vesheshan (विशेषण, Adjectives):
Vesheshan also give additional information about the noun (sangya) or the pronoun (sarvanam).
(किसी भी संज्ञा अथवा सर्वनाम की विशेषता बतलाता है उसे विशेषण कहते हैं। जैसे - एक युवा लङका है।)

Example:
A Young boy. (एक युवा लङका ।)
Ek yuva larka.

Young – adjective
Boy – noun.
युवा – विशेषण
लङका – संज्ञा)

For example:  
• Chatur (चतुर) – clever
• Kala (काला) – Black
• Lamba (लंबा) – Long
• Chotta (छोटा) - Small
• Yuva (युवा) – Young

The following sentences contain examples of vesheshan (adjectives):

Rohan ek chatur larka hai. (रोहन एक चतुर लड़का है।) Rohan is clever boy.
Mahesh lamba larka hai. (महेश लंबा लड़का है।) Mohan is tall boy.

4) Kriya (क्रिया, Verb):
In Hindi, the verb, specially the action verb is known as kriya (क्रिया).
(किसी वस्तु या चीज़ के विषय मे कहने के लिए जिस शब्द का प्रयोग होता है। वही शब्द क्रिया है।)

For Example:
• Khata hai (खाता है) - Eating
• Jaata hai (जाता है) - Going
• Sota hai (सोता है) - Sleeping
• Gaata hai (गाता है) - Singing

Note: the verbs given in the examples are for the singular masculine subjects. For feminine gender and singular number, the verbs are conjucted as khati hai.(खाती है), gaati hai. (गाती है), jaati hai. (जाती है). The plurals of the verbs for both genders are khate hai (खाते है), gaate hai (गाते है), jaate hai(जाते है).

The following sentences contain examples of kriya (verb):

• Sita mithai kha rhi hai. (सीता मिठाई खा रही है।) Sita is eating sweets.
• Shaan gaana gar ha hai. (शान गाना गा रहा है।) Shaan is singing song.



5) Kriya Vesheshan (क्रिया-विशेषण, Adverb):
Kriya Vesheshan (क्रिया-विशेषण) in Hindi does the same work as done by adverbs in English. These words give additional information about the verb, adjectives, and other adverbs in a sentence.
(क्रिया को विशलेषित करने अथवा विशेषता बताने वाले शब्द को क्रिया-विशेषण कहते है।)

For Example:
• Dheere (धीरे-धीरे) – Slowly
• Tej (तेज़) – Fast

The following sentences contain examples of kriya visheshan.
Ram dhire dhire khana khata hai. (राम धीरे-धीरे खाना खाता है) Ram eats food slowly.
Rabbit bhut tej daud rha hai. (खरगोश बहुत तेज दौड़ रहा है।) Rabbit is running very fast.

6) Preposition (सम्बन्धबोधक, Sambandhbodhak):

Preposition are describe the relationship between the nouns, verbs, and adjectives, sambandhbodhak shabd are words that also tell about the relationships of sangya (nouns) and sarvanam (pronouns) with other words of the sentence.

For Example:
• Inside - bheetar
• Outside - bahar.
• Near - paas

The following sentences contain examples of sambandhbodhak:

Ram ghar ke bhahar hai .( रामघर के बाहर है।) - ram is uptside the home.
Reeta hotel ke andar hai.( रीता होटल के अंदर है।) - reeta is inside the hotel.

7) Conjuction (समुच्चयबोधक, Sammuchyabodhak):
Those words which does the job of joining two sentences or parts of sentences are known as conjuction.
(जब दो या दो से अघिक शब्दो  अथवा वाक्यो को जोङता है। उसे समुच्चयबोधक कहते है।)

For Example:
Aur(और) - and
Kintu(किंतु) - but
Kyunki (क्योंकि) - because

The following sentences contain examples of Sammuchyabodhak:
Ram or shyam bhai hai.( राम और श्याम भाई है।) ram and shyam both are brothers.
Rohan ko paise mat dena kyunki veh udhar wapis nhi karta hai.( रोहन को  पैसे मत देना क्योंकि वो उधार वापिस नही करता है।।) - don't give money to Rohan because he does not return the amount.

8) Interjection (Vismayadibodhak, विस्मयादिबोधक):
The sentences which uses exclamatory mark with the words are known as interjection.
(वह वाक्य जिसमे गहरी अनूभूति हो उसे विस्मयादिबोधक कहते है।)

For example:
• Arey!(अरे!) – oh!.
• Kash!(काश!) – I wish!
• Wah!(वाह!) – Wow!

The following sentences contain examples of Vismayadibodhak..

Arey! Ye to bhut sundar hai.( अरे! ये तो बहुत सुदंर है।) oh! This is very beautiful.
Wah! Kitna acha mausam hai.(वाह: कितना अच्छा मौसम है।) Waw! Weather is so pleasant.





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