Hindi Grammar (हिंदी व्याकरण)

A language is "set of words" or in other in words "set of rules". This "set of rules" we call it as a Grammar. Grammar tells us the order in which the words are to be framed to form correct sentences.

"Each language has its own rules or its own Grammar".

Hindi Grammar is slightly different from English Grammar. In the following sections we will go through the basic blocks of Hindi Grammar.

Types of Hindi Grammar (हिंदी व्याकरण के प्रकार)

Hindi grammar is divided into three parts:

1) वर्णविचार (Varṇa vichar) (In Letters)

2) शब्दविचार (shabd vichar) (In Words )

3) वाक्यविचार (vakya vichar) (In Sentences)

1) वर्णविचार (Varṇa vichar):

Varna vichar is collection of Hindi varna. We have a total of 52 varna in Hindi.

2) शब्दविचार (shabd vichar) (In Words):

"Shabd" means "Word" in English. It is formed with the combination of more than a letter. In Hindi shabd (word) is the smallest unit of sentence.

"Shabd" is a group of letters which is categorized into two parts:

a) Sarthak (सार्थक) shabd:

Sarthak sahbd means which gives a specific meaning.

For example:

Jaana, padna, ghumna etc

b) Nirarthak (निरार्थक) shabd:

Nirarthak shabd those words which have no specific meaning.

For example: cham – cham( छम –छम), dham- dham (धम – धम) etc.

Types of Shabd:

1) Rudh (रूध): The words which has no meaning after dividing into parts is known as rudh.

For e.g: Mala (माला), pustak (पुस्तक) etc..

2)Yougik (यौगिक): The words which are formed with the help of two or more words are known as yougik shabd.

For e.g: Vidyalaya (vidya+ aalya, विद्यालय), Varmala (var + mala, वरमाला).

3) Yogrudh: The words that is divided into two words and has special meaning is known as yogrudh.

For e.g. parmatma (par + aatma, परमात्मा) , pankaj (पंकज).

4) वाक्यविचार (vakya vichar) (In Sentences).

Definition of vakya: In Hindi Grammar, the group of words that express thoughts and ideas in a clear or concise manner is known as vakya.

Based on the composition, vakya is categorized into three parts, sadharan vakya, sanyukt vakya, mishrit vakya.

Types of Vakya (वाक्यकेभेद)

1)Sadharan vakya (साधारण वाक्य)

2)Sanyukt vakya (संयुक्त वाक्य)

3)Mishrit vakya (मिश्रित वाक्य)

1) Sadharan vakya (साधारण वाक्य): In English we can call it as a simple sentence. A sentence that expresses a thought or an idea with the help of a subject and verb is known as Sadharan vakya.

For e.g: लेखक कहानी लिखता है। (Lekhak kahani likhta hai)

राम गाना गाता है। (ram gaana gaata hai)

2) Sanyukt vakya (संयुक्त वाक्य): In English we can call it as a compound sentence. A sentences that are joined together with the help of conjuction(ya, phir, aur, kintu etc..) are known as Sanyukt vakya.

For e.g. rohan bus ka intezaar kr rha tha par bus bhut der se phuchi (रोहन बस का इंतजार कर रहा था  पर  बस  देर से पहुंची।)

3) Mishrit vakya (मिश्रित वाक्य): In English we can call it as a mix sentence. A sentences, which is formed with the help of many simple sentences is known as Mishrit vakya.

For e.g. ram or mohan bhut dino ke bad park dekhne gya tha prantu park bnd tha.(राम और मोहन बहुत दिनो के बाद बगीचा गया था परंतु  बगीचा बंद था।)

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